# Discrete-time signals¶

Discrete-time signal support is experimental and requires the discretetime module to be explicitly imported. It introduces three new domain variables:

• n for discrete-time signals, for example, 3 * u(n - 2)
• k for discrete-frequency spectra
• z for z-transforms, for example, Y(z)

The n, k, and z variables share many of the attributes and methods of their continuous-time equivalents, t, f, and s, Expressions.

The discrete-time signal can be plotted using the plot() method. For example,

from lcapy import delta
from lcapy.discretetime import n
from matplotlib.pyplot import savefig

x = delta(n) + delta(n - 2)
x.plot(figsize=(6, 2))

savefig('dt1-plot1.png') ## Functions¶

There are two special discrete functions:

• delta(n) the discrete unit impulse. This is one when n=0 and zero otherwise.
• u(n) the discrete unit step. This is one when n>=0 and zero otherwise.

## Sequences¶

>>> x = delta(n) + 2 * delta(n - 2)
>>> seq = x.seq((-5, 5))
>>> seq
{0, 0, 0, 0, 0, _1, 0, 2, 0, 0, 0}


Note, the underscore marks the item in the sequence where n = 0.

The extent of the sequence is given by the extent() method.

>>> seq.extent()
>>> 3


Sequences can be convolved together, for example,

>>> seq((1, 2, 3)).convolve(seq((1, 1))
{_1, 3, 5, 3}


Sequences can be converted to n-domain or k-domain expressions, for example,

>>> seq((1, 2))(n)
δ[n] + 2⋅δ[n - 2]

>>> seq((1, 2))(k)
δ[k] + 2⋅δ[k - 2]


## Discrete-time (n-domain) expressions¶

Lcapy refers to Discrete-time expressions as n-domain expressions. They are of class nExpr and can be created explicitly using the n-domain variable n. For example,

>>> 2 * u(n) + delta(n - 1)
2⋅u[n] + δ[n - 1]


In this expression u(n) denotes the unit step and delta(n) denotes the unit impulse. Square brackets are used in printing to reduce confusion with the Heaviside function and Dirac delta.

Discrete-time expressions can be converted to sequences using the seq() method. For example,

>>> (delta(n) + 2 * delta(n - 1) + 3 * delta(n - 3)).seq()
{_1, 2, 0, 3}


The seq method has an argument to specify the extent of the sequence. This is required if the sequences have infinite extent. For example,

>>> (2 * u(n) + delta(n - 1)).seq((-10, 10))
{_2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2}


/ In this example the zero samples have been removed but the sequence has been truncated.

The z-transform of a discrete-time expression can be found with the ZT() method:

>>> (delta(n) + 2 * delta(n - 2)).ZT()
2
1 + ──
2
z


A more compact notation is to pass z as an argument:

>>> (delta(n) + 2 * delta(n - 2))(z)
2
1 + ──
2
z


The discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT) of a discrete-time expression can be found with the DTFT() method:

>>> (delta(n) + 2 * delta(n - 2)).DTFT()
-4⋅ⅉ⋅π⋅Δₜ⋅f
1 + 2⋅ℯ


A more compact notation is to pass f as an argument:

>>> (delta(n) + 2 * delta(n - 2))(f)
-4⋅ⅉ⋅π⋅Δₜ⋅f
1 + 2⋅ℯ


The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) converts a discrete-time expression to a discrete-frequency expression. This is performed using the DFT() method or using a k argument. For example,

>>> (delta(n) + 2 * delta(n - 2))(k)
N - 1
____
╲
╲                        -2⋅ⅉ⋅π⋅k⋅n
╲                       ───────────
╱                            N
╱   (δ[n] + 2⋅δ[n - 2])⋅ℯ
╱
‾‾‾‾
n = 0


Note, SymPy does not simplifies this since it does not know that N>1. However, if N is known, it can be specified as an argument. For example,

>>> (delta(n) + 2 * delta(n - 2))(k, N=4)
-ⅉ⋅π⋅k
1 + 2⋅ℯ


Evaluation of the DFT can be prevented by setting evaluate=False,

>>> (delta(n) + 2 * delta(n - 2))(k, N=4, evaluate=False)
N
____
╲
╲                        -2⋅ⅉ⋅π⋅k⋅n
╲                       ───────────
╱                            N
╱   (δ[n] + 2⋅δ[n - 2])⋅ℯ
╱
‾‾‾‾
n = 0


## Discrete-frequency (k-domain) expressions¶

Lcapy refers to discrete-frequency expressions as k-domain expressions. They are of class kExpr and can be created explicitly using the k-domain variable n. For example,

>>> 2 * u(k) + delta(k - 1)
2⋅u[k] + δ[k - 1]


Discrete-frequency expressions can be converted to sequences using the seq() method. For example,

>>> (delta(k) + 2 * delta(k - 1) + 3 * delta(k - 3)).seq()
{_1, 2, 0, 3}


## Z-domain expressions¶

Z-domain expressions can be constructed using the z-domain variable z, for example,

>>> 1 + 1 / z
1
1 + ─
z


Alternatively, they can be generated using a z-transform of a discrete-time signal.

Z-domain expressions are objects of the zExpr class. They are functions of the complex variable z and are similar to sExpr objects. The general form of a z-domain expression is a rational function so all the s-domain formatting methods are applicable (see Formatting methods).

The poles and zeros of a z-domain expression can be plotted using the plot() method. For example,

from lcapy import delta
from lcapy.discretetime import n, z
from matplotlib.pyplot import savefig

x = delta(n) + delta(n - 2)
X = x(z)
X.plot()

savefig('dt1-pole-zero-plot1.png') ## Transforms¶

Lcapy implements a number of transforms for converting between different domains.

### Z-transform¶

Lcapy uses the unilateral z-transform, defined as:

$X(z) = \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} x(n) z^{-n}$

The z-transform is performed explicitly with the ZT method:

>>> x = delta(n) + 2 * delta(n - 2)
>>> x.ZT()
>>>      2
1 + ──
2
z


It is also performed implicitly with z as an argument:

>>> x(z)
>>>     2
1 + ──
2
z


### Inverse z-transform¶

The inverse unilateral z-transform is not unique and is only defined for $$n \ge 0$$. For example,

>>> H = z / (z - 'a')
>>> H(n)
⎧ n
⎨a   for n ≥ 0
⎩


If the result is known to be causal, then use:

>>> H(n, causal=True)
n
a ⋅u(n)


### Discrete time Fourier transform (DTFT)¶

The DTFT converts an n-domain or z-domain expression into the f-domain (continuous Fourier domain). Note, unlike the Fourier transform, this is periodic with period $$1/\Delta t$$. It is defined by

$X_{\frac{1}{\Delta t}}(f) = \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} x(n) e^{-2 \mathrm{j} \pi n \Delta t f}$

If the signal $$x(n)$$ is causal, the DTFT can be found by substituting $$z = \exp(-2 \mathrm{j} \pi \Delta t f)$$ into the z-transform of $$x(n)$$.

Here’s an example of the DTFT:

from lcapy import delta
from lcapy.discretetime import n, dt
from matplotlib.pyplot import savefig

x = delta(n) + delta(n - 2)
x.DTFT().subs(dt, 1).plot(figsize=(6, 3))

savefig('dt1-DTFT-plot1.png', bbox_inches='tight') ### Discrete Fourier transform (DFT)¶

The DFT converts an n-domain expression to a k-domain expression. The definition used by Lcapy is:

$X(k) = \sum_{k=0}^{N - 1} x(n) e^{\frac{-\mathrm{j} 2\pi k n}{N}}$

### Inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT)¶

The IDFT converts a k-domain expression to an n-domain expression. The definition used by Lcapy is:

$x[n] = \frac{1}{N} \sum_{k=0}^{N - 1} X(k) e^{\frac{\mathrm{j} 2 \pi k n}{N}}$

### Bilinear transform¶

The bilinear transform can be used to approximate an s-domain expression with a z-domain expression using $$s \approx \frac{2}{\Delta t} \frac{1 - z^{-1}}{1 + z^{-1}}$$. This is performed by the bilinear_transform() method of s-domain objects, for example,

>>> H = s / (s - 'a')
>>> Hz = H.bilinear_transform().simplify()
>>> Hz
2⋅(1 - z)
──────────────────────
Δₜ⋅a⋅(z + 1) - 2⋅z + 2


Here’s another example, an RC low-pass filter.

>>> from lcapy import Circuit, s, t
>>> net = Circuit("""
R 1 2; right
W 0 0_2; right
C 2 0_2; down
W 2 3; right=0.5
W 0_2 0_3; right=0.5""")


This has a transfer function:

>>> H = net.transfer(1, 0, 3, 0)
>>> H
1
─────────────
⎛     1 ⎞
C⋅R⋅⎜s + ───⎟
⎝    C⋅R⎠


and an impulse response:

>>> H(t)
-t
───
C⋅R
e   ⋅u(t)
─────────
C⋅R


Using the bilinear transform, the discrete-time transfer function is

>>> H.bilinear_transform().canonical()
Δₜ⋅(z + 1)
──────────────────────────────
⎛    -2⋅C⋅R + Δₜ⎞
⎜z + ───────────⎟⋅(2⋅C⋅R + Δₜ)
⎝     2⋅C⋅R + Δₜ⎠


with a discrete-time impulse response

>>> from lcapy.discretetime import n
>>> H.bilinear_transform()(n).simplify()
⎛                  n                         ⎞
⎜      ⎛2⋅C⋅R - Δₜ⎞                          ⎟
Δₜ⋅⎜4⋅C⋅R⋅⎜──────────⎟ ⋅u(n) - (2⋅C⋅R + Δₜ)⋅δ[n]⎟
⎝      ⎝2⋅C⋅R + Δₜ⎠                          ⎠
─────────────────────────────────────────────────
(2⋅C⋅R - Δₜ)⋅(2⋅C⋅R + Δₜ)